In this section: General guidance on symbols  Guidance on spacing around commonly used symbols  Selecting and adding symbols and characters  Symbols to avoid
General guidance on using symbols and special characters
In general symbols should be avoided in text, with use reserved for within brackets or tables or wherever brevity is important. Symbols should be used when expressing dosages (e.g. 5 mg/kg/day) or in mathematical equations. See also guidance on usage of common symbols.
Special characters should be used, where available, to represent names or words accurately (e.g. Marušić 2010).
Only symbols and special characters available in RevMan 5 can be used in a Cochrane Review. Some symbols and special characters should be avoided (See Symbols to avoid.)
Guidance on usage and presentation of commonly used symbols
Symbol  Description  Usage  Spacing 
+ 
plus, and 
One space either side 

− 
minus Note: the minus symbol is different to the dash available on most keyboards. The minus sign is available as a symbol in RevMan 5 (Unicode 2212). 
One space either side in mathematical equations, but no space between the minus sign and the number for a negative number e.g. Standard negative pressure rates range from −50 mmHg to −125 mmHg. Note: for equations, see Statistical and mathematical presentation. 

/ 
per or divided by 
Use '/' instead of 'per' where 'per' is otherwise cumbersome 10 mg/kg (not 10 mg per kg) 
No space on either side, e.g. 10 g/L 
< 
less than (e.g. for percentages) fewer than (e.g. for people) 
One space either side 

> 
greater than more than 
One space either side 

= 
equals 
One space either side 

& 
and 
The ampersand symbol should only be used if it is part of a brand name (e.g. Procter & Gamble) or the title of a publication (e.g. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism). 
One space either side 
% 
percentage 
The percentage sign can be used in a block of text when it is used with a numeral. e.g. Fewer than 90% of the participants completed the study. Use 'per cent' instead of '%' when starting a sentence and when the number is written in full (i.e. not a numeral). e.g. Three per cent of people . . . 
There is no space between the number and the percentage sign, e.g. 15%. 
™, ® 
Trademark (® for registered; ™ for unregistered) 
The trademark symbols are not normally used in Cochrane Reviews. 
If used, the symbols should be written immediately after the brand name they apply to, with no separating space, e.g. Nexium®, Backup Exec™ software. 
Selecting and adding symbols and special characters
Many different symbols and special characters are available for use in Review Manager 5 (RevMan 5). They may be inserted using the 'Insert symbol...' option from the 'Edit' menu or by using codes.
Selecting symbols using the RevMan 5 'Insert Symbol' tool:
Codes for most commonly used symbols in RevMan 5:
Symbol 
PC: Alt + code 
Mac: Alt + Shift + Code 

≤ 
8804 
2264 
≥ 
8805 
2265 
µ 
0181 
03BC 
° (degree symbol) 
0176 
00B0 
² (superscript 2) 
0178 
00B2 
³ (superscript 3) 
0179 
00B3 
± 
0177 
00B1 
Symbols and characters to avoid
Some symbols and characters should be avoided, because they currently do not render correctly in PDFs.
Alt + Code  Symbol 

64257  ﬁ 
351  ş 
369  ű 
8776  ≈ 
8260  ⁄ 
8764  ∼ 
8734  ∞ 
8197  
9674  ◊ 
8595  ↓ 
8203  
8201  
8593  ↑ 
934  Φ 
8206  
9201  〈 
923  Λ 
8218  ‚ 
8592  ← 
8202  
710  ˆ 
9827  ♣ 
127  ? in box 
978  ϒ 
8250  › 
8773  ≅ 
8222  „ 
8727  ∗ 
402  ƒ 
8200  
8240  ‰ 
8706  ∂ 
8800  ≠ 
928  Π 
8207  
8719  ∏ 
8733  ∝ 
8736  ∠ 
376  Ÿ 
8596  ↔ 
8660  ⇔ 
8709  ∅ 
8721  ∑ 
8743  ∧ 