- C73: Standard changed to: Consider the potential impact of non-reporting biases on the results of the review or the meta-analysis it contains. Rationale & elaboration changed to: There is overwhelming evidence of non-reporting biases of various types. These can be addressed at various points of the review. A thorough search, and attempts to obtain unpublished results, might minimize the risk. Analyses of the results of included studies, for example using funnel plots, can sometimes help determine the possible extent of the problem, as can attempts to identify study protocols, which should be a routine feature of Cochrane Reviews.
- C24: Standard changed from “Planning the search” to “Searching general bibliographic databases and CENTRAL”
- C41: Standard changed to: “Document the selection process in sufficient detail to be able to complete a flow diagram and a table of ‘Characteristics of excluded studies’. Change elaboration to read: “A PRISMA type flow diagram and a table of ‘Characteristics of excluded studies’ will need to be completed in the final review……..”
- R56: Standard changed to: Provide information on the flow of studies…………., ideally using a PRISMA type flow diagram……………..individual studies”.
- UR4: Elaboration changed to: “Provide information on the flow of studies into the updated review, ideally using a PRISMA type flow diagram.”
- R98: Status changed to mandatory – Mandating SoF tables.
- R102: Changed elaboration to: “When formulating implications for practice base conclusions only on findings from the synthesis (quantitative or narrative) of studies included in the review. The conclusions of the review should convey the essence of the synthesis of included studies, without selective reporting of particular findings on the basis of the result, and without drawing on data that were not systematically compiled and evaluated as part of the review.”
- C48: Upgraded from 'highly desirable' to 'mandatory'.